The Investigation Process Research Resource Site
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Launched Aug 26 1996.


Investigation Process Research Bibliographies, Papers

This section contains miscellaneous lists and bibliographies related to one or more aspects of investigation processes that may be of interest to investigation researchers. References may also be of interest to practicing investigators, investigation program designers, investigation program managers, investigation trainers, and system analysts.

  1. Annotated list of relevant papers of potential interest to investigation researchers, including some classic works in the field.

  2. Examples of papers about aviation accident investigation techniques, published by International Society of Air Safety Investigators. (Copyright 1995 by ISASI; reproduced with permission. (Contact ISASI for copies of papers.)

  3. P. Ladkin Bibliography.
    Papers and essays about investigation issues, focused especially on aircraft accidents and investigations, are posted at this Bielefeld University site, including discussions of investigation logic and data presentation. Go to site ( (31 Aug 1997)

  4. L. Benner Bibliography of investigation research-related publications containing papers resulting from research.

  5. C O Miller Bibliography of publications and presentations.

    Send your suggestions for others dealing with the investigation process to the Webmaster


Click on references to view papers.
(References without links may be available from the Webmaster at cost, for serious researchers.)

  1. Surry, Jean, INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT RESEARCH - A Human Engineering Approach, Ontario Ministry of Labour, Ontario Government Publications Service, Toronto, Ontario M7A 1N8 Canada 1978. Chapter 3 contains an early discussion of conceptual models of accident process.

  2. Committee on Evaluation of Industrial Hazards, NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD. Report of Panel on Causes and Prevention of Grain Elevator Explosions. Discusses investigation process elements and investigator qualifications. 1980.

  3. Hendrick, K.M., Benner, L. and Lawton, R. A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE SEARCH FOR INDIRECT HUMAN ELEMENTS IN ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS, Fourth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH April 29, 1987 Paper describes a process for identifying and addressing human behavior roles in accidents, using a data layering approach.

  4. Benner, L. RANKING SAFETY RECOMMENDATION EFFECTIVENESS , International Society of Air Safety Investigators, Proceedings of 1992 Conference, Dallas TX. Paper ranks safety recommendation effectiveness low. Paper describes observed deficiencies in the investigation-related recommendation development process, discusses their adverse effects, and presents alternatives available to abate those deficiencies. View PAPER.

  5. Johnson, C.W, McCarthy, J.C., and Wright, P.C., USING A FORMAL LANGUAGE TO SUPPORT NATURAL LANGUAGE IN ACCIDENT REPORTS ., Ergonomics 38:6, 1995 1264-1287. Paper argues that formal mathematically based notations can be recruited to support natural language descriptions of accidents. Advocates Petri nets Contact C W Johnson .

  6. Schum, D. and Tillers, P, MARSHALLING EVIDENCE FOR ADVERSARY LITIGATION , Cardozo Law Review 25:2-3, 1991. Paper explores strategies for and how an investigator can marshall details on the basis of interests that arise during investigations, with legal orientation. Contact D Schum for reprint .
    David Schum and I developed . Our theory is most fully described in P.Tillers & D. Schum, "A theory of Preliminary Fact Investigation," U.C. Davis Law Review or view draft version of paper about theory of evidence marshaling (sans footnotes). David Schum and he are now working to develop a sophisticated but user-friendly version of this software that might be used in "real time" by lawyers, paralegals, and other decision makers during investigation and in litigation. View paper..

  7. Benner, L, ACCIDENT THEORY AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION , Proceedings of the Society of Air Safety Investigators Annual Seminar, Ottawa Canada October 1975 . Discusses how perceptions of phenomenon affect investigations, reinforces process perception and its application to investigation process. Contact ISASI for Proceedings.

  8. Benner, L., APPLYING SYSTEM SAFETY TO THE SAFETY RECOMMENDATION PROCESS S, Proceedings of the 10th International System Safety Conference, Irving TX July 1991 Evaluates the effectiveness of a typical recommendation process using predicted performance and system safety concepts as the bases for evaluation. The evaluation disclosed four serious deficiencies. Contact System Safety Society .

  9. Rimson, Ira J. and Benner, L., MISHAP INVESTIGATIONS: TOOLS FOR EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF SYSTEM SAFETY PROGRAM PERFORMANCE , Winner of Best Presentation Award at the 12th International System Safety Conference, Albuquerque, NM, August 1996. Describes how proper investigations of real world mishaps offer opportunities for system safety practitioners to validate the quality of their predictive performance.

  10. Rimson, Ira J. and Benner, L., Human Factors Intervention Strategies to Prevent Aircraft Accidents: Paradigm Shifts to Exploit Successful Human Factors Interventions for Aircraft Accident Prevention

    Position Paper, Prepared for FAA Office of System Safety Workshop on  Flight Crew Accident and Incident Human Factors, McLean, VA June 21-23, 1995. Describes current problems with human factors investigations, and proposed 5 paradigm shifts to achieve improved performance.

  11. Rimson, Ira J. and Benner, L., PREVENTING FLIGHT CREW ERRORS: PRIMARY DATA MUST DRIVE ANALYSES Second Workshop on Flight Crew Accident and Incident Human Factors, June 12-14, 1996, FAA Office of System Safety Proceedings. Describes proposal to get investigations of mishaps "turned around" by changing its project goals, approaches and methods, and proposes specific actions to identify undesired human behaviors and actions from original sources.

  12. "Can We Believe What We See, If We See What We Believe? - Expert Disagreement," by Jon J. Nordby, Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFSCA, Vol. 37, No. 4, July 1992, pp.1115-1124. Requests for reprints may be addressed to:
    Professor Jon J. Nordby, Pacific Lutheran University - Knoll 204, Tacoma, WA 98447 USA. Addresses what investigators see; addressed differently from Vaughan's retrospective fallacy arguments, but speaks to similar phenomenon. (Referenced 9/1)
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